Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker

Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic, but scientists are racing to produce a safe and effective coronavirus vaccine by next year. Researchers are testing 38 vaccines in clinical trials on humans, and at least 93 preclinical vaccines are under active investigation in animals.

Work began in January with the deciphering of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The first vaccine safety trials in humans started in March, but the road ahead remains uncertain. Some trials will fail, and others may end without a clear result. But a few may succeed in stimulating the immune system to produce effective antibodies against the virus.

Here is the status of all the vaccines that have reached trials in humans, along with a selection of promising vaccines still being tested in cells or animals.

Nota original: The New Youk Times https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html


The Vaccine Testing Process

The development cycle of a vaccine, from lab to clinic.

PRECLINICAL TESTING: Scientists test a new vaccine on cells and then give it to animals such as mice or monkeys to see if it produces an immune response. We have confirmed 93 preclinical vaccines in active development.

PHASE I SAFETY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to a small number of people to test safety and dosage as well as to confirm that it stimulates the immune system.

PHASE II EXPANDED TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to hundreds of people split into groups, such as children and the elderly, to see if the vaccine acts differently in them. These trials further test the vaccine’s safety and ability to stimulate the immune system.

PHASE III EFFICACY TRIALS: Scientists give the vaccine to thousands of people and wait to see how many become infected, compared with volunteers who received a placebo. These trials can determine if the vaccine protects against the coronavirus. In June, the F.D.A. said that a coronavirus vaccine would have to protect at least 50% of vaccinated people to be considered effective. In addition, Phase 3 trials are large enough to reveal evidence of relatively rare side effects that might be missed in earlier studies.

EARLY OR LIMITED APPROVAL: China and Russia have approved vaccines without waiting for the results of Phase 3 trials. Experts say the rushed process has serious risks.

APPROVAL: Regulators in each country review the trial results and decide whether to approve the vaccine or not. During a pandemic, a vaccine may receive emergency use authorization before getting formal approval. Once a vaccine is licensed, researchers continue to monitor people who receive it to make sure it’s safe and effective.

COMBINED PHASES: One way to accelerate vaccine development is to combine phases. Some coronavirus vaccines are now in Phase 1/2 trials, for example, in which they are tested for the first time on hundreds of people. (Note that our tracker would count a combined Phase 1/2 trial as both Phase 1 and Phase 2.)


Genetic Vaccines

Vaccines that use one or more of the coronavirus’s own genes to provoke an immune response.

PHASE 3

Moderna develops vaccines based on messenger RNA (mRNA) to produce viral proteins in the body. They have yet to bring one to the market. In January, they began developing a vaccine for the coronavirus and since then the government has bankrolled Moderna’s efforts, providing nearly $1 billion. In partnership with National Institutes of Health, they found that the vaccine protects monkeys from the coronavirus. In March, the company put the first Covid-19 vaccine into human trials, which yielded promising results. The vaccine has progressed into Phase 3 testing, which began on July 27. The final trial is enrolling 30,000 healthy people at about 89 sites around the United States. On August 11, the government awarded the company an additional $1.5 billion in exchange for 100 million doses if the vaccine proves safe and effective.

In July, Moderna lost a patent dispute over some of their vaccine technology. The following month, the company stated that it could not be certain it was the first to make the inventions claimed in their patents, including its coronavirus vaccine.
Updated Sept. 9

PHASE 2 PHASE 3 COMBINED PHASES

The German company BioNTech entered into collaborations with Pfizer, based in New York, and the Chinese drug maker Fosun Pharma to develop an mRNA vaccine. In May they launched a Phase 1/2 trial on two versions of the vaccine. They found that both versions caused volunteers to produce antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, as well as immune cells called T cells that respond to the virus. They found that one version, called BNT162b2, produced significantly fewer side effects, such as fevers and fatigue, and so they chose it to move into Phase 2/3 trials. On July 27, the companies announced the launch of a Phase 2/3 trial with 30,000 volunteers in the United States and other countries including Argentina, Brazil, and Germany.

In that same month, the Trump administration awarded a $1.9 billion contract for 100 million doses to be delivered by December and the option to acquire 500 million more doses. Meanwhile, Japan made a deal for 120 million doses, and the European Union arranged to purchase 200 million doses.

In September, the chief executive of Pfizer said they would know if the vaccine works as soon as October 2020. If approved, Pfizer has said they expect to manufacture over 1.3 billion doses of their vaccine worldwide by the end of 2021.
Updated Sept. 9

PHASE 2

Indian vaccine-maker Zydus Cadila began testing a DNA-based vaccine in July, becoming the second company in India to enter the Covid-19 vaccine race after Bharat Biotech. They launched a Phase 2 trial on Aug. 6.
Updated Aug. 6

PHASE 2

In March, the Trump administration unsuccessfully tried to entice CureVac to move its research from Germany to the United States. In June, the company launched a Phase 1 trial of its mRNA vaccine, and in August it registered a Phase 2 trial. In September, the chief executive of CureVac said that the company would make 100 million doses by the end of 2020 and hoped to gain approval some time in 2021. CureVac has collaborated with Elon Musk’s company Tesla on creating mRNA “micro-factories,” which could potentially be deployed around the world to make billions of doses of the vaccine.
Updated Sept. 4

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES


Imperial College London researchers have developed a “self-amplifying” RNA vaccine, which boosts production of a viral protein to stimulate the immune system. They began Phase 1/2 trials on June 15 and have partnered with Morningside Ventures to manufacture and distribute the vaccine through a new company called VacEquity Global Health. The researchers expect to know if the vaccine is effective by the end of the year.

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES


On June 30, the Japanese biotechnology company AnGes announced they had started Phase 1 trials on a DNA-based vaccine, developed in partnership with Osaka University and Takara Bio. They began recruiting for the trial at the end of August.
Updated Aug. 27

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES


The California-based company Arcturus Therapeutics and Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore have developed an mRNA vaccine. It has a “self-replicating” design that leads to a greater production of viral proteins. Tests on animals showed that it protected them against infection. In August, Arcturus launched a Phase 1/2 trial at Singapore General Hospital.
Updated Sept. 8

PHASE 1

The American company Inovio has developed DNA-based vaccines which are delivered into the skin with electric pulses from a hand-held device. They have vaccines in clinical trials for a number of diseases, and in June they announced interim data from a Phase 1 trial on Covid-19. They found no serious adverse effects, and measured an immune response in 34 out of 36 volunteers. Inovio has yet to publish detailed results of these studies, however, and it is embroiled in several lawsuits with stockholders and a company partner. They plan to start Phase 2/3 trials in September and are preparing to make up to 100 million doses in 2021.
Updated Sept. 9

PHASE 1


The Korean company Genexine started testing the safety of a DNA-based vaccine in June. They anticipate moving to Phase 2 trials in the fall.
Updated June 24

PHASE 1


In June, Chinese researchers at the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Suzhou Abogen Biosciences and Walvax Biotechnology announced they would start their country’s first safety trials on a mRNA-based vaccine, called ARCoV. Earlier studies on monkeys reportedly showed protective effects.
Updated June 26

PRECLINICAL


The French pharmaceutical company Sanofi is developing an mRNA vaccine in partnership with Translate Bio. On June 23, they announced they were planning Phase 1 trials in the fall. It would become their second Covid-19 vaccine candidate in clinical trials, along with their protein-based vaccine.
Updated Sept. 3

PRECLINICAL

Other genetic vaccines in active preclinical development include vaccines from: Applied DNA Sciences, EvviVax and Takis Biotech; Chula Vaccine Research Center; DIOSynVax; Elixirgen Therapeutics; Entos Pharmaceuticals; ETheRNA; Mediphage Bioceuticals; the OPENCORONA Consortia; Scancell; the Spanish National Center for Biotechnology and the Spanish National Research Council.


Viral Vector Vaccines

Vaccines that use a virus to deliver coronavirus genes into cells anVaccines that contain viruses engineered to carry coronavirus genes. Some viral vector vaccines enter cells and cause them to make viral proteins. Other viral vectors slowly replicate, carrying coronavirus proteins on their surface.d provoke an immune response.

PHASE 3 APPROVED FOR LIMITED USE


The Chinese company CanSino Biologics developed a vaccine based on an adenovirus called Ad5, in partnership with the Institute of Biology at the country’s Academy of Military Medical Sciences. In May, they published promising results from a Phase 1 safety trial, and in July they reported that their Phase 2 trials demonstrated the vaccine produced a strong immune response. In an unprecedented move, the Chinese military approved the vaccine on June 25 for a year as a “specially needed drug.” CanSino would not say whether vaccination would be mandatory or optional for soldiers. On August 9, the Saudi health ministry announced that CanSino Biologics would run a Phase 3 trial in Saudi Arabia, and later in the month they also started a trial in Pakistan.
Updated Aug. 27

PHASE 3 APPROVED FOR EARLY USE


The Gamaleya Research Institute, part of Russia’s Ministry of Health, launched clinical trials in June of a vaccine they called Gam-Covid-Vac. It is a combination of two adenoviruses, Ad5 and Ad26, both engineered with a coronavirus gene.

On Aug. 11, President Vladimir V. Putin announced that a Russian health care regulator had approved the vaccine, renamed Sputnik V, before Phase 3 trials had even begun. Vaccine experts decried the move as risky, and Russia later walked back the announcement, saying that the approval was a “conditional registration certificate,” which would depend on positive results from Phase 3 trials. Those trials, initially planned for just 2,000 volunteers, were expanded to 40,000. On September 4, three weeks after Putin’s announcement, Gamaleya researchers published the results of their Phase 1/2 trial. In a small study, they found that Sputnik yielded antibodies to the coronavirus and mild side effects.
Updated Sept. 4

PHASE 2 PHASE 3 COMBINED PHASES


A vaccine in development by the British-Swedish company AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford is based on a chimpanzee adenovirus called ChAdOx1. A study on monkeys found that the vaccine provided them protection. In May, the United States awarded the project $1.2 billion in support. In their Phase 1/2 trial, the vaccine developers did not detect any severe side effects. They found that the vaccine raised antibodies against the coronavirus as well as other immune defenses. The vaccine began Phase 2/3 trials in England and India, as well as Phase 3 trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States.

In August the European Union reached an agreement for AstraZeneca to deliver 400 million doses if the trials yield positive results. AstraZeneca has indicated they might be able to start delivering emergency vaccines as early as October, depending on the outcome of the studies. The company has said their total manufacturing capacity for the vaccine, if approved, stands at two billion doses. India’s Serum Institute has already produced millions of doses to be used in trials.

On Sept. 8, AstraZeneca halted global trials of the vaccine to investigate one volunteer, who developed a form of inflammation called transverse myelitis.
Updated Sept. 9

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES


A decade ago, researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston developed a method for making vaccines out of a virus called Adenovirus 26, or Ad26 for short. Johnson & Johnson developed vaccines for Ebola and other diseases with Ad26 and have now made one for the coronavirus. In March they received $456 million from the United States government to support their move towards production. The vaccine has provided protection in experiments on monkeys. Johnson & Johnson launched Phase 1/2 trials in July and will launch a Phase 3 trial with 60,000 participants in September in Latin America.

In August, the federal government agreed to pay $1 billion for 100 million doses if the vaccine is approved. The company is aiming for production of at least a billion doses in 2021.
Updated Aug. 21

PHASE 1


The Italian biotechnology company ReiThera has developed a Covid-19 vaccine, called GRAd-COV2, that is based on an adenovirus that infects gorillas. Working in collaboration with the Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome, they launched a Phase 1 trial at the end of July.
Updated Aug. 28

PHASE 1


The American company Merck acquired the Austrian firm Themis Bioscience in June and is working on a vaccine originally developed at Institut Pasteur. The vaccine uses a weakened measles virus that carries a gene for the coronavirus spike protein. Researchers launched a Phase I trial in August.
Updated Aug. 12

PHASE 1


In 2019, researchers at the University of Hong Kong and Xiamen University created a nasal-spray vaccine for the flu based on a genetically weakened form of the influenza virus. Earlier this year, they engineered the vaccine to produce part of the coronavirus spike protein as well. On September 9, they received approval to start clinical trials in partnership with Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy.
Updated Sept. 9

PRECLINICAL


In addition to its project with Themis, Merck is partnering with IAVI on a second viral vector vaccine that could potentially be taken orally. This one employs vesicular stomatitis viruses, the same approach Merck successfully used to produce the first approved vaccine for Ebola. Merck and IAVI have received $38 million in support from the United States government. Merck and IAVI are planning a Phase 1 trial expected to start sometime in late 2020.
Updated Aug. 27

PRECLINICAL


The Swiss company Novartis will manufacture a vaccine based on a gene therapy treatment developed by the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Gene Therapy Program at the University of Pennsylvania. A virus called an adeno-associated virus delivers coronavirus gene fragments into cells. Phase 1 trials are set to begin in late 2020.
Updated Aug. 24

PRECLINICAL


Vaxart’s vaccine is an oral tablet containing an adenovirus that delivers coronavirus genes. In September, they reported that it produced neutralizing antibodies in mice.
Updated Sept. 9

PRECLINICAL

Other viral vector vaccines in active preclinical development include vaccines from: Altimmune; the German Center for Infection Research; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai; Intravacc; the Israel Institute for Biological Research; KU Leuven; Meissa Vaccines; NantKwest; the Spanish National Center for Biotechnology and the Spanish National Research Council; Thomas Jefferson University and Bharat Biotechnology; Tonix Pharmaceuticals; University of Pittsburgh; Vivaldi Biosciences; Washington University.


Protein-Based Vaccines

Vaccines that use a coronavirus protein or a protein fragment to provoke an immune response.

PHASE 2

In July, the Chinese company Anhui Zhifei Longcom began Phase 2 trials for a vaccine that is a combination of viral proteins and an adjuvant that stimulates the immune system. The company is part of Chongqing Zhifei Biological Products and has partnered with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

Maryland-based Novavax makes vaccines by sticking proteins onto microscopic particles. They’ve taken on a number of different diseases this way; their flu vaccine finished Phase 3 trials in March. The company launched trials for a Covid-19 vaccine in May, and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations has invested $384 million in the vaccine. In July the U.S. government awarded $1.6 billion to support the vaccine’s clinical trials and manufacturing.

On Aug. 4, Novavax announced promising results from two preliminary studies in monkeys and humans. On August 17, they launched a Phase 2 trial in South Africa. The blinded, placebo-controlled trial on 2,900 people will measure not just the safety of the vaccine but its efficacy. Larger, Phase 3 trials are expected to start in October.

If the trials succeed, Novavax expects to deliver 100 million doses for use in the United States by the first quarter of 2021. In August, an executive at the company said it could make well over a billion doses a year for worldwide demand.

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

On August 18, the head of epidemiology at Cuba’s public health ministry announced that the Finlay Vaccine Institute in Havana would start a clinical trial on a vaccine for Covid-19. The vaccine, called Soberana 1, contains a part of the spike protein, called RBD, along with an adjuvant to boost the immune response.

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

On August 26, a Russian biological research center known as the Vector Institute registered a Phase 1/2 trial for a coronavirus vaccine they call EpiVacCorona. The vaccine contains small portions of viral proteins, known as peptides. According to newspaper reports, the EpiVacCorona trials had already begun by then, with plans for distribution of the vaccine by the end of the year.

PHASE 1

Clover Biopharmaceuticals has developed a vaccine containing a protein from coronaviruses. To further stimulate the immune system, the vaccine is being given in conjunction with so-called adjuvants made by British drugmaker GSK and the American company Dynavax. Investments from CEPI will support the development of manufacturing that could lead to the production of hundreds of millions of doses a year.

PHASE 1

The Australian company Vaxine developed a vaccine that combines viral proteins with an adjuvant that stimulates the immune system. They successfully completed Phase 1 trials in July and expect to start Phase 2 trials in September.

PHASE 1

A vaccine from Australia’s University of Queensland delivers viral proteins altered to draw a stronger immune response. Experiments on hamsters showed that the vaccine protected them from the coronavirus. The university launched Phase 1 trials in July, combining the proteins with an adjuvant made by CSL. If the results are positive, CSL will advance late stage clinical trials by the end of 2020. In September the vaccine makers reached an agreement with the Australian government to deliver 51 million doses if the trials deliver positive results. They expected their first supply of the vaccines to be ready in mid-2021.

PHASE 1

A second tobacco-based vaccine is in development at Kentucky BioProcessing, an American subsidiary of British American Tobacco, the maker of Lucky Strike and other cigarettes. Like Medicago, Kentucky BioProcessing engineers a species of tobacco called Nicotiana benthamiana to make viral proteins. The company previously used this technique to make a drug called Zmapp for Ebola. After preclinical testing in the spring, they registered a Phase 1 trial for their coronavirus vaccine in July.

PHASE 1

Taiwan-based vaccine maker Medigen is making a vaccine made of a combination of spike proteins and an adjuvant from Dynavax. They have registered a Phase 1 trial set to start in September.

PHASE 1

Taiwan-based vaccine manufacturer Adimmune got permission to launch a Phase 1 trial on August 20. The vaccine contains the RBD section of the virus’s spike protein.

PHASE 1

In July, researchers at West China Hospital of Sichuan University published a study in Nature describing a vaccine made from the RBD region of the spike protein that could protect mice and monkeys from the coronavirus. On August 24, they got approval to run a Phase 1 trial. To make the vaccine, researchers encode the RBD region in a gene, which they insert into a virus. They then infect insect cells with the virus, causing them to make the molecule in huge amounts.

PHASE 1

In addition to their mRNA vaccine, Sanofi developed a Covid-19 vaccine based on viral proteins. They produced the proteins with engineered viruses that grow inside insect cells. GSK supplemented these proteins with adjuvants that stimulate the immune system. The vaccine is based on the same design Sanofi used to create Flublok, an approved vaccine for infuenza. The companies launched a Phase 1 clinical trial in September, with plans to start Phase 3 trials in December.

Even before their clinical trials began, Sanofi had negotiated several deals to supply the vaccine. They reached an agreement with the British government to provide up to 60 million doses if the vaccine succeeds in trials. Meanwhile, the United Statesagreed to pay the companies $2.1 billion for 100 million doses. In addition, Sanofi agreed to provide much of its global supply to COVAX, an international collaboration to deliver the vaccine equitably across the world.

In September, Sanofi said that if their trials produced positive results they would request regulatory approval in the first half of 2021. They have plans to make up to one billion doses in 2021.

PHASE 1?

On July 18, North Korea’s State Commission of Science and Technology announced on their web site that they had started clinical trials on a vaccine based on part of the coronavirus spike protein. It’s hard to independently determine how much truth there is in the claim from the isolated dictatorship. The commission claimed to have tested the vaccine on animals, but provided no data. What’s more, it stated that effectiveness trials would have to be carried out in another country “since there is no case of Covid-19 in DPR Korea.” That’s a claim outside experts find highly doubtful.

PRECLINICAL

After the SARS epidemic in 2002, Baylor College of Medicine researchers began developing a vaccine that could prevent a new outbreak. Despite promising early results, support for the research disappeared. Because the coronaviruses that cause SARS and Covid-19 are very similar, the researchers revived the project in partnership with the Texas Children’s Hospital. The researchers have found that the Covid-19 vaccine produces antibodies in mice. In August, the Indian company Biological E licensed it, saying they could potentially make a billion doses a year.

PRECLINICAL

A vaccine in development by the University of Pittsburgh, called PittCoVacc, is a skin patch tipped with 400 tiny needles made of sugar. When placed on the skin, the needles dissolve and deliver virus proteins into the body. Its creators are planning to start clinical trials in late 2020.

PRECLINICAL

Other protein-based vaccines in active preclinical development include vaccines from: Adaptive Phage Therapeutics; AdaptVac and Bavarian Nordic; Applied Biotechnology Institute; Artes Biotech; Axon Neuroscience; BiOMVis and University of Trento; City College of New York and TechnoVax; COVAXX; EpiVax; GeoVax; Heat Biologics; IBio and CC-Pharming; Icosavax and University of Washington; ImmunoPrecise Antibodies; IMV; Instituto Butantan; Intravacc; IrsiCaixa; Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center; Navarrabiomed; NidoVax; OncoGen; Oragenics; OSE Immunotherapeutics; Osivax; PDS Biotechnology; Pontifical Catholic University of Chile; Saiba; SK Bioscience; Symvivo; University of Alberta; University of Georgia and EpiVax; University of Saskatchewan and VIDO-InterVac; University of Virginia; UNSAM-CONICET; Vaxform; Vaxil-Bio; VBI Vaccines; Verndari; VIDO-InterVac; Voltron Therapeutics; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Wyss Institute and Harvard University; Yisheng Biopharma.


Inactivated or Attenuated Coronavirus Vaccines

Vaccines created from weakened coronaviruses or coronaviruses that have been killed with chemicals.

PHASE 3 APPROVED FOR LIMITED USE
Sinovac logo
The private Chinese company Sinovac Biotech is testing an inactivated vaccine called CoronaVac. In June the company announced that Phase 1/2 trials on 743 volunteers found no severe adverse effects and produced an immune response. Sinovac then launched a Phase 3 trial in Brazil in July and another in Indonesia the following month. Reuters reported that the Chinese government gave the Sinovac vaccine an emergency approval for limited use in July. Meanwhile, Sinovac has been preparing to manufacture the vaccine, reaching an agreement to supply Indonesia with at least 40 million doses by March 2021.

PHASE.

The Wuhan Institute of Biological Products developed an inactivated virus vaccine, which the state-owned Chinese company Sinopharm put into clinical tests. The Phase 1/2 trial showed that the vaccine produced antibodies in volunteers, some of whom experienced fevers and other side effects. They launched Phase 3 trials in the United Arab Emirates in July, and in Peru and Morocco the following month. Sinopharm’s chairman said in August that the vaccine could potentially be ready for public use by the end of 2020. Sinopharm said that the Chinese government approved one of their two inactivated virus vaccines for emergency use in July, but it was not clear which one got the approval.

PHASE 3
Sinopharm logo
Sinopharm is also testing a second inactivated virus vaccine, this one developed by the Beijing Institute of Biological Products. In Phase 3 trials in the United Arab Emirates, 5,000 people are receiving the Wuhan Institute version, while another 5,000 are receiving the Beijing Institute one. Sinopharm said that the Chinese government approved one of their two inactivated virus vaccines for emergency use in July, but it was not clear which one got the approval.

PHASE 3
Institute of Medical Biology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences logo
Researchers at the Institute of Medical Biology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, which has invented vaccines for polio and hepatitis A, started a Phase 2 trial of an inactivated virus vaccine in June.

PHASE 1 PHASE 2 COMBINED PHASES

In collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology, the Indian company Bharat Biotech designed a vaccine called Covaxin based on an inactivated form of the coronavirus. When the company launched Phase 1/2 trials in July, reports circulated that the vaccine would be ready by August 15. But the C.E.O. of Bharat told reporters it would be available no sooner than early 2021.

PHASE 1

The central Asian nation of Kazakhstan began research on a vaccine made from inactivated coronaviruses over the summer. On August 28, their Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems registered a Phase 1 trial on the vaccine, known as QazCovid.

PRECLINICAL

Other inactivated or attenuated coronavirus vaccines in active preclinical development include vaccines from: the Chumakov Center at the Russian Academy of Sciences; Codagenix; Valneva; Vivaldi Biosciences; Washington University; Western University.


Repurposed Vaccines

Vaccines already in use for other diseases that may also protect against Covid-19.

PHASE 3
Murdoch Children’s Research Institute logo
The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine was developed in the early 1900s as a protection against tuberculosis. The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia is conducting a Phase 3 trial called the BRACE to see if the vaccine partly protects against the coronavirus.

PRECLINICAL

Other repurposed vaccines are in clinical trials being conducted by: the Bandim Health Project; Hôpitaux de Paris; Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans; the BADAS Study (Texas A&M University, Baylor College of Medicine, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center); India’s National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis; BCG-CORONA (UMC Utrecht and Radboud University); University of Campinas; University Health Network, the Serum Institute of India, the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology and Verity Pharmaceuticals; Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation and the University of Oklahoma; Vakzine Projekt Management.

Note: Vaccines will be added to the tracker when they reach Phase 1, and tracked until they succeed or fail.

Did we miss something? To notify The Times of new developments, send updates to vaccinetracker@nytimes.com.

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